University of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

A peculiar ICME event in August 2018 observed with the Global Muon Detector Network

conference contribution
posted on 2023-05-23, 19:14 authored by Munakata, K, Kihara, W, Kato, C, Kozai, M, Kuwabara, T, Tokumaru, M, Mendonca, RRS, Echer, E, Dal Lago, A, Rockenbach, M, Schuch, NJ, Bageston, JV, Braga, CR, Al Jassar, HK, Sharma, MM, Marcus DuldigMarcus Duldig, John Humble, Evenson, P, Sabbah, I
We demonstrate that global observations of high-energy cosmic rays contribute to understanding unique characteristics of a large-scale magnetic flux rope (MFR) causing a magnetic storm in August 2018. Following a weak interplanetary shock on 25 August 2018, a MFR caused an unexpectedly large geomagnetic storm. It is likely that this event became geoeffective because the MFR was accompanied by a corotating interaction region (CIR) and compressed by high-speed solar wind following the MFR. In fact, a Forbush decrease was observed in cosmic-ray data inside the MFR as expected, and a significant cosmic-ray density increase exceeding the unmodulated level before the shock was also observed near the trailing edge of the MFR. The cosmic-ray density increase can be interpreted in terms of the adiabatic heating of cosmic rays near the trailing edge of the MFR, as the corotating interaction region prevents free expansion of the MFR and results in the compression near the trailing edge. A northeast-directed spatial gradient in the cosmic-ray density was also derived during the cosmic-ray density increase, suggesting that the center of the heating near the trailing edge is located northeast of Earth. The second order anisotropy is observed during the density increase clearly representing an intensity enhancement of cosmic rays with approximately 90 degree pitch angle, possibly indicating the betatron acceleration of CRs during the cosmic-ray density increase and/or accelerated CRs leaking along the magnetic field from the density increase region toward the south where lower CR population is expected. This is one of the best examples demonstrating that the observation of high-energy cosmic rays provides us with information of the three-dimensional macroscopic picture of the interaction between coronal mass ejections and the ambient solar wind, which is essential for prediction of large magnetic storms.


Publication title

Proceedings of Science: Proceedings of the 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), Paper 1265




School of Natural Sciences

Event title

37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021)

Event Venue

Berlin, Germany

Date of Event (Start Date)


Date of Event (End Date)


Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Expanding knowledge in the physical sciences

Usage metrics

    University Of Tasmania


    Ref. manager