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ADHD-A Clinician's Bird's Eye View of Current Status and New Vistas!
Objectives: Literature on ADHD has taken long strides recently as heaps of new data are pouring in through countless papers. Here, authors try to outline changing paradigms in ADHD practice. DSM-5 changes regarding the typology and diagnostic criteria are highlighted. Overview of co-morbidities, associations, developmental trajectories, and syndromic continuity across lifespan is outlined. Recent insights into aetiology and diagnostic tools are briefly discussed. New medications in the pipeline are also described.
Methods: EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews were searched for all relevant updates in ADHD literature as of June, 2022.
Results: DSM-5 brought about changes to the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. These included replacing types with presentations, pushing age to 12, and, incorporating adult diagnostic criteria. In the same vein, DSM-5 allows now for diagnosing concurrent ADHD and ASD. Associations of ADHD to allergy, obesity, sleep disorders, and, epilepsy have been demonstrated in recent literature. Neurocircuity underlying ADHD has been extended beyond frontal-striatal to include CTC as well as DMN accounting for ADHD heterogeneity. NEBA was FDA-approved to differentiate ADHD from hyperkinetic ID. Atypical antipsychotics use to address behavioural facets in ADHD is on the rise with no solid evidence-base. α-2 agonists are FDA-approved as monotherapy or adjunctive to stimulants. Pharmacogenetic testing is readily available for ADHD. Different formulations of stimulants abound on the market widening clinicians' repertoire. Stimulant-related exacerbation of anxiety and tics were challenged in recent studies. Drugs for ADHD in the pipeline include-dasotraline, armodafinil, tipepidine, edivoxetine, metadoxine, and memantine.
Conclusions: Literature on ADHD keeps expanding towards advancing our understanding of the complex and heterogeneous intricacies of this commonplace neurodevelopmental disorder and hence informing better decisions on how best to manage its diverse cognitive, behavioural, social and medical facets.
Publication titlePsychopharmacology Bulletin
Department/SchoolTasmanian School of Medicine
Place of publicationUnited States