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A Shannon entropy approach for structural damage identification based on self-powered sensor data

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-20, 07:55 authored by Mousavi, M, Damien HollowayDamien Holloway, Jan OlivierJan Olivier, Alavi, AH, Gandomi, AH
Piezo-floating-gate (PFG) sensors are a class of self-powered sensors fabricated using piezoelectric transducers and p-channel floating-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (pMOS) transistors. These sensors are equipped with a series of floating-gates that are triggered when the voltage generated by the piezoelectric transducers exceeds one of the specified thresholds. Upon activation, the floating-gates cumulatively store the duration of the applied strain events. Defining optimal voltage thresholds plays a key role in the efficiency of the PFG sensors for structural damage identification. In this paper, symbolic dynamic analysis (SDA) based on Shannon entropy is used to find the effective voltage thresholds that ensure the maximum detectability of the structural damagerelated changes. To this end, a baseline is constructed using the strain data obtained from the undamaged structure. These data are used to set the voltage threshold on every floating gate of the sensor. Then the posterior state of the structure is monitored using thresholds set up on the baseline and a cumulative density function (CDF) of strain events. In order to determine the damage severity, a damage index is defined based on the Euclidean norm of the distance between the CDFs for the damaged and healthy structure. The proposed technique is verified using experimental data for a steel plate subjected to an in-plane tension loading. The results confirm the capability of the proposed method in monitoring structures for damage initiation and/or propagation using the PFG sensors, and the CDFs on which the damage sensitive feature (DSF) is based can provide additional insights into the stress distributions.


Publication title

Engineering Structures



Article number









School of Engineering


Elsevier Sci Ltd

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The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, England, Oxon, Ox5 1Gb

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Copyright 2019 Elsevier Ltd.

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  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Expanding knowledge in engineering