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Antibiotics self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria.pdf (169.59 kB)

Antibiotics self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria

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posted on 2023-05-20, 09:39 authored by Khalid, GM, Jatau, AI, Ibrahim, UI, Dungus, FM, Shitu, Z, Sha'aban, A, Burji, SL

Introduction: The burden of antibiotic self-medication (ASM) is increasing and becoming a global health threat due to antibiotics resistance. However, little is known about ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students who are the future custodians of medicines including antibiotics. Therefore, this study aims to develop, validate and utilize an online survey tool to investigate the prevalence of ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey form was developed, validated by face validity, content validity, and pilot study. The hyperlink to the online survey form was shared with undergraduate pharmacy students in northern Nigeria via WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter. Data were collected from eligible participants and analyzed using descriptive statistic.

Results: A total of 217 students responded to the online survey, with a completion rate of 100%. Of the total number of respondents, 200 (92.2%) reported practicing ASM at least once in their lifetime. The major reasons for ASM were previous knowledge (40.4%) and having no time to see a doctor or pharmacist (27.5%). Amoxicillin (32.6%), Amoxicillin/ Clavulanic acid (32.1%), Ampicillin/Cloxacillin (21.7%) and Ciprofloxacin (22.6%) were the most commonly implicated antibiotics in ASM. Cough, diarrhea, typhoid, and wound were the most frequently involved conditions. Patent medicine vendors (75.4%) and community pharmacies (29.4%) were the common source of antibiotics subjected to ASM.

Conclusion: A research tool to assess ASM among undergraduate pharmacy students has been developed, validated and utilized. The prevalence of ASM is high among undergraduate pharmacy students in Northern Nigeria. Interventions to improve knowledge and awareness on ASM are needed among undergraduate pharmacy students to ensure antibiotic stewardship.


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Point of Care






School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Place of publication

United States

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© The Author(s) 2019. Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (

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Expanding knowledge in the health sciences

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