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Associations between anxious-depressed symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in a longitudinal childhood study
METHODS: Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a study of 2900 pregnancies recruited between 1989 and 1991, were used. Anxious-depressed scores (derived from the Childhood Behavior Checklist), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured at 5 (n=1681), 8 (n=1697), 10 (n=1575) and 14 (n=1386) years. At age 14 depressive symptom scores (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth), anxious-depressed scores (Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Teacher Report Form (TRF)) and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin were also available. Cross sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted.
RESULTS: At age 14, girls with higher anxious-depressed scores had higher BMI (p≤ 0.005) and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (p≤ 0.0001). This equated to a difference of 0.6 kg/m(2) and 0.3 units in predicted BMI and HOMA-IR respectively (top 5% vs. score of zero). Boys with higher anxious-depressed scores had lower systolic blood pressure trajectories (p=0.024).
CONCLUSION: Depressive scores appear to have differing influences on BMI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure in boys and girls. Paradoxically boys with higher anxious-depressed scores had lower blood pressure throughout childhood.
Publication titlePreventive Medicine
Department/SchoolMenzies Institute for Medical Research
PublisherAcademic Press Inc Elsevier Science
Place of publication525 B St, Ste 1900, San Diego, USA, Ca, 92101-4495