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Augmentation index and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-17, 20:45 authored by Rachel ClimieRachel Climie, Nikolic, SB, Petr OtahalPetr Otahal, Keith, LJ, James SharmanJames Sharman
Background Augmentation index (AIx) is regarded as a marker of systemic arterial stiffness. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have increased arterial stiffness, but not AIx, which suggests that mechanisms contributing to AIx in T2DM may differ from healthy individuals and be unrelated to arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiovascular and clinical determinates of AIx (including arterial stiffness) in patients with T2DM compared with controls. Methods Clinical characteristics and haemodynamic variables (including aortic and brachial pulse wave velocity [stiffness], cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate) and AIx (by radial tonometry) were recorded in 53 T2DM and 53 matched controls. Correlates of AIx unadjusted for heart rate were assessed by uni- and multi-variable analysis. Results Compared with controls, T2DM patients had significantly higher aortic stiffness (7.6 ± 1.6 vs 6.7 ± 1.9 m/s p = 0.016), cardiac output, heart rate, brachial and central BP; lower brachial stiffness and systemic vascular resistance, but no significant difference in AIx (27 ± 9 vs 24 ± 11% p = 0.184). AIx (adjusted or unadjusted) was not significantly related to aortic or brachial stiffness in either group (p > 0.198 all). Independent predictors of AIx in T2DM patients were height and heart rate, whereas in controls, AIx was independently related to height. Conclusions Determinants of AIx in patients with T2DM differ from healthy individuals. Moreover, AIx is not significantly related to regional large artery stiffness and should not be regarded as indicative of systemic arterial stiffness.


Publication title

Artery Research










Menzies Institute for Medical Research


Elsevier BV

Place of publication


Rights statement

Copyright 2013 Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology

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Socio-economic Objectives

Clinical health not elsewhere classified

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