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Automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of the organic phase

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-19, 20:30 authored by Medina, DAV, Santos-Neto, AJ, Cerda, V, Fernando Maya AlejandroFernando Maya Alejandro

In this work, the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique based on the solidification of the organic phase (DLLME-SFO) has been automated for the first time. DLLME-SFO is automated by hyphenating a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system with a custom-made robotic phase separator. Automated in-syringe DLLME is followed by phase separation in a 3D printed device integrating a Peltier cell set, mounted on a multi-axis robotic arm. The combined action of the flow system and the robotic arm is controlled by a single software package, enabling the solidification/melting and collection of the organic phase for further analyte quantification.

As proof-of-concept, automated DLLME-SFO was applied to the extraction of parabens followed by separation using liquid chromatography, obtaining LODs between 0.3 and 1.3 µg L−1 (4 mL of sample extracted in 1 mL of 1-dodecanol: MeOH, 15:85, v-v). The method showed a high reproducibility, obtaining intraday RSDs between 4.6% and 5.8% (n = 6), and interday RSDs between 5.6% and 8.6% (n = 6). The developed method was evaluated for the determination of parabens in water, urine, saliva, and personal care products.


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School of Natural Sciences


Elsevier Science Bv

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Po Box 211, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1000 Ae

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Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V.

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Socio-economic Objectives

Expanding knowledge in the chemical sciences