University Of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

Biosynthetic pathways of triterpenoids and strategies to improve their biosynthetic efficiency

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 06:47 authored by Noushahi, HA, Khan, AH, Noushahi, UF, Hussain, M, Javed, T, Zafar, M, Batool, M, Ahmed, U, Ke LiuKe Liu, Matthew HarrisonMatthew Harrison, Saud, S, Fahad, S, Shu, S
"Triterpenoids" can be considered natural products derived from the cyclization of squalene, yielding 3-deoxytriterpenes (hydrocarbons) or 3-hydroxytriterpenes. Triterpenoids are metabolites of these two classes of triterpenes, produced by the functionalization of their carbon skeleton. They can be categorized into different groups based on their structural formula/design. Triterpenoids are an important group of compounds that are widely used in the fields of pharmacology, food, and industrial biotechnology. However, inadequate synthetic methods and insufficient knowledge of the biosynthesis of triterpenoids, such as their structure, enzymatic activity, and the methods used to produce pure and active triterpenoids, are key problems that limit the production of these active metabolites. Here, we summarize the derivatives, pharmaceutical properties, and biosynthetic pathways of triterpenoids and review the enzymes involved in their biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we concluded the screening methods, identified the genes involved in the pathways, and highlighted the appropriate strategies used to enhance their biosynthetic production to facilitate the commercial process of triterpenoids through the synthetic biology method.


Grains Research & Development Corporation


Publication title

Plant Growth Regulation








Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture (TIA)



Place of publication

Van Godewijckstraat 30, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 3311 Gz

Rights statement

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. 2022.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Terrestrial biodiversity; Ecosystem adaptation to climate change; Climate adaptive plants