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Chronic periodontitis and smoking: Prevalence and dose-response relationship

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posted on 2023-05-18, 23:04 authored by Shahrukh KhanShahrukh Khan, Khalid, T, Awan, KH
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (± 6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (greater than 5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. 

Results: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p < 0.007), male gender (p < 0.001), and lower education level (p < 0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p < 0.001) and severity (p < 0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis.


Publication title

Saudi Medical Journal










School of Health Sciences


Medical Services Department, Saudi Arabian Armed Forces Ministry of Defence and Aviation

Place of publication

Saudi Arabia

Rights statement

Copyright 2016 Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Repository Status

  • Open

Socio-economic Objectives

Dental health

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