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Combined effects of smoking, anti-EBNA antibodies, and HLA-DRB1*1501 on multiple sclerosis risk
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-17, 03:24 authored by Simon, KC, Ingrid van der MeiIngrid van der Mei, Munger, KL, Ponsonby, A, Joanne DickinsonJoanne Dickinson, Terry DwyerTerry Dwyer, Sundstrom, P, Ascherio, A
Objective: To examine the interplay between smoking, serum antibody titers to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (anti-EBNA), and HLA-DR15 on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. Methods: Individual and pooled analyses were conducted among 442 cases and 865 controls from 3 MS case-control studies-a nested case-control study in the Nurses' Health Study/Nurses' Health Study II, the Tasmanian MS Study, and a Swedish MS Study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the association between smoking, anti-EBNA titers, HLA-DR15, and MS risk. Study estimates were pooled using inverse variance weights to determine a combined effect and p value. Results: AmongMScases, anti-EBNA titers were significantly higher in ever smokers compared to never smokers. The increased risk of MS associated with high anti-EBNA Ab titers was stronger among ever smokers (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7-5.7) compared to never smokers (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.3; p for interaction 0.001). The increased risk of MS associated with a history of smoking was no longer evident after adjustment for anti-EBNA Ab titers. No modification or confounding by HLA-DR15 was observed. The increased risk of MS associated with ever smoking was only observed among those who had high anti-EBNA titers (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6). Conclusions: Smoking appears to enhance the association between high anti-EBNA titer and increased multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. The association between HLA-DR15 and MS risk is independent of smoking. Further work is necessary to elucidate possible biologic mechanisms to explain this finding.
Department/SchoolMenzies Institute for Medical Research
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
Place of publication530 Walnut St, Philadelphia, USA, Pa, 19106-3621
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