Community size structure varies with predator-prey size relationships and temperature across Australian reefs
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-21, 09:04 authored by Amy CoghlanAmy Coghlan, Julia BlanchardJulia Blanchard, Freddie HeatherFreddie Heather, Richard Stuart-SmithRichard Stuart-Smith, Graham EdgarGraham Edgar, Asta AudzijonyteAsta Audzijonyte
Climate change and fisheries exploitation are dramatically changing the abundances, species composition, and size spectra of fish communities. We explore whether variation in ‘abundance size spectra’, a widely studied ecosystem feature, is influenced by a parameter theorized to govern the shape of size-structured ecosystems—the relationship between the sizes of predators and their prey (predator–prey mass ratios, or PPMRs). PPMR estimates are lacking for a vast number of fish species, including at the scale of trophic guilds. Using measurements of 8128 prey items in gut contents of 97 reef fish species, we established predator–prey mass ratios (PPMRs) for four major trophic guilds (piscivores, invertivores, planktivores, and herbivores) using linear mixed effects models. To assess the theoretical predictions that higher community-level PPMRs leads to shallower size spectrum slopes, we compared observations of both ecosystem metrics for ~15,000 coastal reef sites distributed around Australia. PPMRs of individual fishes were remarkably high (median ~71,000), with significant variation between different trophic guilds (~890 for piscivores; ~83,000 for planktivores), and ~8700 for whole communities. Community-level PPMRs were positively related to size spectrum slopes, broadly consistent with theory, however, this pattern was also influenced by the latitudinal temperature gradient. Tropical reefs showed a stronger relationship between community-level PPMRs and community size spectrum slopes than temperate reefs. The extent that these patterns apply outside Australia and consequences for community structure and dynamics are key areas for future investigation.
The Pew Charitable Trusts
Publication titleEcology and Evolution
Department/SchoolInstitute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
Rights statement© 2021. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.