University of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

Development of a Brief Patient-Administered Screening Tool for Prescription Opioid Dependence for Primary Care Settings

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-20, 17:26 authored by Nielsen, S, Picco, L, Campbell, G, Lintzeris, N, Larance, B, Farrell, M, Degenhardt, L, Raimondo BrunoRaimondo Bruno

Objective: To develop a short, patient-administered screening tool that will allow for earlier assessment of prescription opioid dependence (often referred to as addiction) in primary care settings.

Design and Setting: Cross-sectional analysis (N¼ 1,134) from the two-year time point of the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) cohort was used in the scale development. Subjects. Participants who completed two-year interviews in the POINT study, a prospective cohort study that followed people with chronic noncancer pain over a five-year period, and who were prescribed strong opioids for a minimum of six weeks at baseline.

Methods: An advisory committee provided advice on wording and content for screening in primary care settings. Univariate logistic regression identified individual items that were significantly associated with meeting ICD-11 criteria for prescription opioid dependence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) were conducted, and items were reduced to identify a small item set that were discriminative and shared a simple underlying structure.

Results: Sixty-four variables associated with ICD-11 criteria for prescription opioid dependence were initially identified. Four rounds of EFA were performed, resulting in five items remaining. CFA identified two possible four-item combinations, with the final combination chosen based on greater item endorsement and the results of goodness-of-fit indices.

Conclusions: Addressing prescription opioid dependence is an important part of the global public health challenge surrounding rising opioid-related harm. This study addresses an important initial requisite step to develop a brief screening tool. Further studies are required to validate the tool in clinical settings.


Publication title

Pain Medicine








School of Psychological Sciences


Blackwell Publishing Inc

Place of publication

350 Main St, Malden, USA, Ma, 02148

Rights statement

Copyright 2019 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified

Usage metrics

    University Of Tasmania


    Ref. manager