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Diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence in Glaucoma screening and clinical practice
Purpose: Artificial intelligence (AI) has been shown as a diagnostic tool for glaucoma detection through imaging modalities. However, these tools are yet to be deployed into clinical practice. This meta-analysis determined overall AI performance for glaucoma diagnosis and identified potential factors affecting their implementation.
Methods: We searched databases (Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus) for studies that developed or investigated the use of AI for glaucoma detection using fundus and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. A bivariate random-effects model was used to determine the summary estimates for diagnostic outcomes. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy (PRISMA-DTA) extension was followed, and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used for bias and applicability assessment.
Results:Seventy-nine articles met inclusion criteria, with a subset of 66 containing adequate data for quantitative analysis. The pooled area under receiver operating characteristic curve across all studies for glaucoma detection was 96.3%, with a sensitivity of 92.0% (95% confidence interval: 89.0-94.0) and specificity of 94.0% (95% confidence interval: 92.0-95.0). The pooled area under receiver operating characteristic curve on fundus and OCT images was 96.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Mixed data set and external data validation had unsatisfactory diagnostic outcomes.
Conclusion: Although AI has the potential to revolutionize glaucoma care, this meta-analysis highlights that before such algorithms can be implemented into clinical care, a number of issues need to be addressed. With substantial heterogeneity across studies, many factors were found to affect the diagnostic performance. We recommend implementing a standard diagnostic protocol for grading, implementing external data validation, and analysis across different ethnicity groups.
Publication titleJournal of Glaucoma
Department/SchoolMenzies Institute for Medical Research
PublisherWolters Kluwer Health
Place of publicationNew York