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Effects of the intense geomagnetic storm of September-October 2012 on the equatorial, low- and mid-latitude F region in the American and African sector during the unusual 24th solar cycle
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-20, 16:20 authored by de Jesus, R, Fagundes, PR, Coster, A, Olawale Bolaji, Sobral, JHA, Batista, IS, de Abreu, AJ, Venkatesh, K, Gende, M, Abalde, JR, Sumod, SG
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the response of the ionospheric F layer in the American and African sectors during the intense geomagnetic storm which occurred on 30 September–01 October 2012. In this work, we used observations from a chain of 20 GPS stations in the equatorial, low- and mid-latitude regions in the American and African sectors. Also, in this study ionospheric sounding data obtained during 29th September to 2nd October, 2012 at Jicamarca (JIC), Peru, São Luis (SL), Fortaleza (FZ), Brazil, and Port Stanley (PST), are presented. On the night of 30 September–01 October, in the main and recovery phase, the h´F variations showed an unusual uplifting of the F region at equatorial (JIC, SL and FZ) and mid- (PST) latitude stations related with the propagations of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) generated by Joule heating at auroral regions. On 30 September, the VTEC variations and foF2 observations at mid-latitude stations (American sector) showed a long-duration positive ionospheric storm (over 6 h of enhancement) associated with large-scale wind circulations and equatorward neutral winds. Also, on 01 October, a long-duration positive ionospheric storm was observed at equatorial, low- and mid- latitude stations in the African sector, related with the large-scale wind circulations and equatorward neutral winds. On 01 and 02 October, positive ionospheric storms were observed at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude stations in the American sector, possibly associated with the TIDs and an equatorward neutral wind. Also, on 01 October negative ionospheric storms were observed at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude regions in the American sector, probably associated with the changes in the O/N2 ratio. On the night of 30 September–01 October, ionospheric plasma bubbles were observed at equatorial, low- and mid- latitude stations in the South American sector, possibly associated with the occurrence of geomagnetic storm.
Publication titleJournal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Department/SchoolSchool of Natural Sciences
PublisherPergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Place of publicationThe Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, England, Ox5 1Gb
Rights statementCopyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.