University of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

Explosive destruction of a Pliocene hot lava dome underwater: Dogashima (Japan)

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-18, 16:00 authored by Martin JutzelerMartin Jutzeler, Jocelyn McPhieJocelyn McPhie, Sharon AllenSharon Allen
Transition from effusive to explosive volcanism is common during subaerial eruptions, and here we demonstrate that this behavior is also possible underwater. The pyroclastic facies produced underwater are distinctive and can be used to distinguish subaqueous from subaerial eruptions and depositional settings. The Pliocene Dogashima Formation (Izu Peninsula, Japan) is a pumice-rich succession originally deposited in an open-marine, below wave-base setting (Jutzeler et al., 2014a). A thick, clast-supported, gray andesite breccia composed of very coarse, dense andesite clasts with quenched margins was sourced from disintegration of an active lava dome. Overall, the gray andesite breccia is gradationally to sharply overlain by thick, graded, clast-supported white pumice breccia chiefly composed of angular pumice clasts and free broken crystals. Regional setting and distinctive facies show that this succession was produced by a fully underwater, magmatic volatile-driven, pumice-forming explosive eruption. The gradational contact between the two breccias, compositional similarities, rare mingled clasts, and fluidal textures in the gray andesite clasts suggest that the explosive eruption destroyed a hot lava dome and generated an eruption-fed, high-concentration density current. In most places, the coarsest hot lava dome fragments were deposited first, followed by the lower density white pumice clasts. The low amount of fine (< 2 mm) components, well-developed hydraulically controlled grading and sorting, clast angularity, and very coarse dome-derived clasts, some including well-defined quenched margins and common fluidal textures, distinguish the products of subaqueous effusive-to-explosive eruptions from their subaerial counterparts.


Australian Research Council

AMIRA International Ltd

ARC C of E Industry Partner $ to be allocated

Anglo American Exploration Philippines Inc

AngloGold Ashanti Australia Limited

Australian National University

BHP Billiton Ltd

Barrick (Australia Pacific) PTY Limited

CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering

Mineral Resources Tasmania

Minerals Council of Australia

Newcrest Mining Limited

Newmont Australia Ltd

Oz Minerals Australia Limited

Rio Tinto Exploration

St Barbara Limited

Teck Cominco Limited

University of Melbourne

University of Queensland

Zinifex Australia Ltd


Publication title

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research








School of Natural Sciences


Elsevier Science Bv

Place of publication

Po Box 211, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1000 Ae

Rights statement

Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Expanding knowledge in the earth sciences

Usage metrics

    University Of Tasmania



    Ref. manager