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Factors associated with change and stability in adherence to muscle-strengthening guidelines among young Australian adults: A longitudinal study

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 03:06 authored by Brooklyn Fraser, Alishah, Z, Costan MagnussenCostan Magnussen, Alison VennAlison Venn, Dwyer, T, Verity ClelandVerity Cleland

Objectives: The 2014 Australian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines (Adults) recommend muscle-strengthening activities ≥2 days/week. This study aimed to identify factors associated with 5-year change and stability in adherence to these guidelines.

Design: Two adult follow-ups of the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) Study. Participants (n = 1510) were 26-36 years (CDAH-1, 2004-06) and 31-41 years (CDAH-2, 2009-11).

Methods: Information on muscle-strengthening activities, sociodemographics, health, physical activity and sedentary behaviour was collected. Participants reporting muscle-strengthening activities ≥2 days/week 'met guidelines', with change and stability categorised as 'persistent adherence', 'increasing adherence', 'decreasing adherence' and 'persistent non-adherence'. Differences in sociodemographic, health and behavioural factors were analysed using log multinomial regression.

Results: Between 15-21% of women (CDAH-1: 14.5%, 95% confidence interval = 12.5-16.9; CDAH-2: 20.7%, 95% confidence interval = 18.3-23.4) and ~21% of men (CDAH-1: 22.2%, 95% confidence interval = 19.0-26.0; CDAH-2: 21.0%, 95% confidence interval = 17.8-24.7) met muscle-strengthening guidelines, but only 8.5% (95% confidence interval = 7.2-10.1) of participants were persistently adherent. Remaining in or moving from a major city, CDAH-1 weight status, cumulative self-rated health and vigorous physical activity were positively associated with persistent adherence (relative risk range = 1.51-3.92), while female gender, becoming partnered and having children at any timepoint were negatively associated with persistent adherence (relative risk range = 0.38-0.58).

Conclusions: Adherence - particularly persistent adherence - to muscle-strengthening guidelines in this sample was low. Gender, marital status, weight status, BMI, self-rated health, urban-rural status, parental status, physical activity and sedentary behaviour were associated with adherence, and should be considered in intervention development to maximise effectiveness.


Publication title

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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online ahead of publication


online ahead of publication






Menzies Institute for Medical Research


Sports Medicine Australia

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Copyright 2021 Sports Medicine Australia

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Evaluation of health outcomes

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