University Of Tasmania
142972 - Four steps for the Earth.pdf (2.25 MB)

Four steps for the Earth: mainstreaming the post-2020 global biodiversity framework

Download (2.25 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-20, 21:18 authored by Milner-Gulland, EJ, Addison, P, Arlidge, WNS, Baker, J, Booth, H, Thomas BrooksThomas Brooks, Bull, JW, Burgass, MJ, Ekstrom, J, zu Ermgassen, SOSE, Fleming, LV, Grub, HMJ, von Hase, A, Hoffmann, M, Hutton, J, Juffe-Bignoli, D, ten Kate, K, Kiesecker, J, Kumpel, NF, Maron, M, Newing, HS, Ole-Moiyoi, K, Sinclair, C, Sinclair, S, Starkey, M, Stuart, SN, Tayleur, C, Watson, JEM
The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that could support this: the Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy. This places the Mitigation Hierarchy for mitigating and compensating the biodiversity impacts of developments (1, avoid; 2, minimize; 3, restore; and 4, offset, toward a target such as "no net loss" of biodiversity) within a broader framing encompassing all conservation actions. We illustrate its application by national governments, sub-national levels (specifically the city of London, a fishery, and Indigenous groups), companies, and individuals. The Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy supports the choice of actions to conserve and restore nature, and evaluation of the effectiveness of those actions, across sectors and scales. It can guide actions toward a sustainable future for people and nature, supporting the CBD's vision.


Publication title

One Earth








Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies


Cell Press

Place of publication

United States

Rights statement

Copyright 2021 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Repository Status

  • Open

Socio-economic Objectives

Assessment and management of terrestrial ecosystems