University of Tasmania
Health Prom J of Aust - 2023 - Hamrah - Gender differences in modifiable dementia risk factors in monolingual and bilingual.pdf (517.2 kB)

Gender differences in modifiable dementia risk factors in monolingual and bilingual Australian adults

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ISSUE ADDRESSED: Gender and bilingualism are reported to influence the risk of dementia. This study examined the prevalence of self-reported modifiable dementia risk factors by gender in two samples: one that speaks at least one language other than English (LoE) and one that speaks only English. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Australian residents aged 50 years or over (n = 4339). Participant characteristics and dementia risk behaviours were inspected using descriptive statistics in data collected via online surveys between October 2020 and November 2021. RESULTS: In both samples, men had a higher rate than women of being overweight and were classified more frequently as being at risk of dementia due to alcohol consumption, lower cognitive activity, and non-adherence to the Mediterranean-style diet. Men reported better management of their cardiometabolic health than women across both groups. Non-significant trends showed men were more often smokers but more physically active than women in the LoE group, and less often smokers but less physically active than women in the English-only group. CONCLUSION: This study found men and women reported similar patterns of dementia risk behaviours regardless of LoE or English-only status. SO WHAT?: Gender differences in risk behaviours prevail regardless of language-speaking status. The results can be used to guide future research aiming to understand and reduce modifiable dementia risk in Australia and beyond.



  • Article

Publication title

Health Promotion Journal of Australia










Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Wicking Dementia Research Education Centre



Publication status

  • Published online

Place of publication


Event Venue

Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

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Copyright 2023 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.