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Giant cell arteritis: ophthalmic manifestations of a systemic disease
PURPOSE: We set out to highlight some of the less frequently observed clinical signs, which may provide clues to clinically diagnosing GCA in patients presenting with non-classical features and inconclusive inflammatory markers.
METHODS: We review the literature and describe the diverse ocular features and some of the systemic findings that can be associated with GCA.
RESULTS: Although the most common ocular manifestation of GCA is anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, the clinical presentation of GCA can vary dramatically. In the absence of obvious ocular involvement, more subtle ophthalmic signs of anterior segment ischaemia, such as hypotony and anisocoria, may be present at the time of initial clinical examination.
CONCLUSION: There are no specific biomarkers for disease to date; therefore, pertinent history and clinical examination can guide towards diagnosis in the acute setting. The diagnostic process is not always straightforward, yet appropriate and prompt diagnosis is critical to enable timely intervention and prevent significant morbidity.
Publication titleGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Department/SchoolMenzies Institute for Medical Research
Place of publicationGermany
Rights statementCopyright 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg