155420 - how does neurovascular unit.pdf (4.35 MB)
How does neurovascular unit dysfunction contribute to multiple sclerosis?
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-21, 16:29 authored by Jake CashionJake Cashion, Kaylene YoungKaylene Young, Brad SutherlandBrad Sutherland
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and the most common non-traumatic cause of neurological disability in young adults. Multiple sclerosis clinical care has improved considerably due to the development of disease-modifying therapies that effectively modulate the peripheral immune response and reduce relapse frequency. However, current treatments do not prevent neurodegeneration and disease progression, and efforts to prevent multiple sclerosis will be hampered so long as the cause of this disease remains unknown. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis development or severity include vitamin D deficiency, cigarette smoking and youth obesity, which also impact vascular health. People with multiple sclerosis frequently experience blood-brain barrier breakdown, microbleeds, reduced cerebral blood flow and diminished neurovascular reactivity, and it is possible that these vascular pathologies are tied to multiple sclerosis development. The neurovascular unit is a cellular network that controls neuroinflammation, maintains blood-brain barrier integrity, and tightly regulates cerebral blood flow, matching energy supply to neuronal demand. The neurovascular unit is composed of vessel-associated cells such as endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes, however neuronal and other glial cell types also comprise the neurovascular niche. Recent single-cell transcriptomics data, indicate that neurovascular cells, particular cells of the microvasculature, are compromised within multiple sclerosis lesions. Large-scale genetic and small-scale cell biology studies also suggest that neurovascular dysfunction could be a primary pathology contributing to multiple sclerosis development. Herein we revisit multiple sclerosis risk factors and multiple sclerosis pathophysiology and highlight the known and potential roles of neurovascular unit dysfunction in multiple sclerosis development and disease progression. We also evaluate the suitability of the neurovascular unit as a potential target for future disease modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.
Publication titleNeurobiology of Disease
Department/SchoolWicking Dementia Research Education Centre
PublisherAcademic Press Inc Elsevier Science
Place of publication525 B St, Ste 1900, San Diego, USA, Ca, 92101-4495
Rights statement© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/