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Igneous Geochemistry of Mineralized Rocks of the Baguio District, Philippines: Implications for Tectonic Evolution and the Genesis of Porphyry-Style Mineralization

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-17, 09:34 authored by Hollings, P, David CookeDavid Cooke, Waters, PJ, Cousens, B
The Baguio district of the Philippines is one of the world’s premier mineral provinces, containing >35 million ounces (Moz) of gold and 2.7 million metric tons (Mt) of copper in epithermal, porphyry, and skarn deposits that formed in the last 3.5 m.y. Pliocene and Pleistocene magmatic rocks of the Baguio district that are spatially and temporally associated with mineralization can be broadly subdivided into an intermediate to felsic suite of mineralized low to medium K intrusions, some of which have adakitic affinities and a suite of mafic to intermediate, medium K to shoshonitic hornblende-phyric dikes. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the dikes are consistent with primitive mantle-derived melts that underwent minimal crustal contamination as they ascended through the arc crust. In contrast, the intermediate to felsic suite has been contaminated by young arc crust, suggesting ponding and fractionation within shallow-crustal magma chambers. The Philippine arc has formed in a complex tectonic environment and is currently sandwiched between two active subduction zones. Eastward-directed subduction of the Scarborough Ridge along the Manila trench is currently associated with flattening of the downgoing slab. The formation of the Mafic dike complex is broadly coeval with the onset of subduction of the Scarborough Ridge and slab flattening. The extinct Scarborough Ridge would have been younger than the downgoing plate and consequently more susceptible to melting. These melts can account for the isotopic recharge of the Pliocene subarc mantle as well as the generation of the primitive melts and adakitic rocks found within the Baguio district. The interaction between primitive mafic melts and the more felsic calc-alkaline rocks has


Publication title

Economic Geology and The Bulletin of The Society of Economic Geologists










School of Natural Sciences


Economic Geology Publ Co

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5808 South Rapp St, Ste 209, Littleton, USA, Co, 80120-1942

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© 2011 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Society of Economic Geologists, 7811 Shaffer Parkway, Littleton, CO 80127, USA

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Socio-economic Objectives

Copper ore exploration

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