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Instrument-free argentometric determination of chloride via trapezoidal distance-based microfluidic paper devices

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-20, 06:30 authored by Rahbar, M, Brett PaullBrett Paull, Miroslav MackaMiroslav Macka
Chloride (Cl-) is an inorganic anion present in a broad range of samples (e.g. biological, environmental, food, water, etc.), the determination of which is of widespread significance. In this work, we translate the well-established traditional argentometric method (Mohr's precipitation titration) into a small, simple, portable, and low-cost paper-based microfluidic diagnostic device, which provides rapid and quantitative analysis. The developed device enables the determination of chloride sample volumes as small as 5 μL. A distance-based detection method is implemented providing fully instrument-free quantitation. The beneficial effects of channel geometry (variable widths with constant heights) on analytical parameters were investigated. Trapezoidal channels (channel width changes linearly with height) were used to create a gradient of paper surface (titrant) available for the reaction, compared to the typical uniform rectangular channels (constant channel width). The trapezoid with increasing width offered higher sensitivity and lower detection limits (i.e. 0.05 mM vs 0.1 mM from the rectangular channel) for chloride determination across the concentration range of 0.05-25 mM. In addition, the effect of concentration of the deposited reagent on the obtained distance signals was investigated using varying concentrations of titrant (AgNO3), which allowed determination of chloride across a wider dynamic range (up to 200 mM). The utility of the paper devices was demonstrated by determination of chloride in a variety of matrices including body fluids (sweat, serum, and urine) and water samples (drinking, mineral, river water).


Publication title

Analytica Chimica Acta








School of Natural Sciences



Place of publication

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Rights statement

Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Expanding knowledge in the chemical sciences