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Juvenility and flowering of Brunonia australis (Goodeniaceae) and Calandrinia sp. (Portulacaceae) in relation to vernalization and daylength

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-17, 06:25 authored by Cave, RL, Birch, CJ, Hammer, GL, Erwin, JE, Johnston, ME

Background and Aims: The time at which plants are transferred to floral inductive conditions affects the onset of flowering and plant morphology, due to juvenility. Plants of Brunonia australis and Calandrinia sp. were used to investigate whether Australian native ephemeral species show a distinct juvenile phase that can be extended to increase vegetative growth and flowering.

Methods: The juvenile phase was quantified by transferring seedlings from less inductive (short day and 30/ 208C) to inductive (vernalization or long day) conditions at six different plant ages ranging from 4 to 35 d after seed germination. An increase in days to first visible floral bud and leaf number were used to signify the end of juvenility.

Key Results: Brunonia australis was receptive to floral inductive long day conditions about 18–22 d after seed germination, whereas plants aged 4–35 d appeared vernalization sensitive. Overall, transferring plants of B. australis from short to long day conditions reduced the time to anthesis compared with vernalization or constant short day conditions. Calandrinia sp. showed a facultative requirement for vernalization and an insensitive phase was not detected. Floral bud and branch production increased favourably as plant age at time of transfer to inductive conditions increased. Younger plants showed the shortest crop production time.

Conclusions: Both species can perceive the vernalization floral stimulus from a very young age, whereas the photoperiodic stimulus is perceived by B. australis after a period of vegetative growth. However, extending the juvenile phase can promote foliage development and enhance flower production of both species.


Publication title

Annals of Botany








Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture (TIA)


Oxford Univ Press

Place of publication

Great Clarendon St, Oxford, England, Ox2 6Dp

Rights statement

The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at:

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Ornamentals, natives, flowers and nursery plants

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