Manipulating GA-related genes for cereal crop improvement
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-21, 15:01 authored by Cheng, J, Hill, CB, Sergey ShabalaSergey Shabala, Li, C, Meixue ZhouMeixue Zhou
The global population is projected to experience a rapid increase in the future, which poses a challenge to global food sustainability. The "Green Revolution" beginning in the 1960s allowed grain yield to reach two billion tons in 2000 due to the introduction of semi-dwarfing genes in cereal crops. Semi-dwarfing genes reduce the gibberellin (GA) signal, leading to short plant stature, which improves the lodging resistance and harvest index under modern fertilization practices. Here, we reviewed the literature on the function of GA in plant growth and development, and the role of GA-related genes in controlling key agronomic traits that contribute to grain yield in cereal crops. We showed that: (1) GA is a significant phytohormone in regulating plant development and reproduction; (2) GA metabolism and GA signalling pathways are two key components in GA-regulated plant growth; (3) GA interacts with other phytohormones manipulating plant development and reproduction; and (4) targeting GA signalling pathways is an effective genetic solution to improve agronomic traits in cereal crops. We suggest that the modification of GA-related genes and the identification of novel alleles without a negative impact on yield and adaptation are significant in cereal crop breeding for plant architecture improvement. We observed that an increasing number of GA-related genes and their mutants have been functionally validated, but only a limited number of GA-related genes have been genetically modified through conventional breeding tools and are widely used in crop breeding successfully. New genome editing technologies, such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system, hold the promise of validating the effectiveness of GA-related genes in crop development and opening a new venue for efficient and accelerated crop breeding.
Publication titleInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Department/SchoolTasmanian Institute of Agriculture (TIA)
Place of publicationSwitzerland
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