University Of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

Methods to develop figure rating scales (FRS): A systematic review

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 02:16 authored by Jayawardena, R, Sooriyaarachchi, P, Kagawa, M, Andrew HillsAndrew Hills, King, NA

Background and aims: Figure Rating Scales (FRS) are psychometric instruments developed to measure individual’s perception of physical appearance and subsequently, to determine the level of body dissatisfaction. The following systematic review summarizes existing FRSs and the techniques used to development them.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed®, Web of Science®, Scopus® using key words “figure rating scale” AND “Stunkard".

Results: From 466 potentially relevant articles, 24 publications were included, 22 publications reporting original FRSs with the other two scales being modifications of the original for children and babies. Fifteen were figural drawings or silhouettes and nine were developed by photographic techniques, video methods or using computer software. Most of the figural scales were applicable for adults and consisted of nine images. Ten of the 15 figural scales were without facial features and four scales had minimal facial features. Technological advancements including 3D modeling have played a pivotal role in the development of FRSs.

Conclusions: FRSs have been developed by a mix of traditional and modern techniques. The development and validation of ethnic specific FRSs using modern technology should be the priority for future studies.


Publication title

Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: clinical research & reviews








College Office - College of Health and Medicine


Elsevier Inc.

Place of publication

United States

Rights statement

© 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Diabetes India.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Behaviour and health

Usage metrics

    University Of Tasmania