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Modelling growth and histamine formation of Klebsiella aerogenes TI24 isolated from Indonesian pindang

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 04:43 authored by Rachmawati, N, Shane PowellShane Powell, Triwibowo, R, David NicholsDavid Nichols, Thomas RossThomas Ross, Mark TamplinMark Tamplin
Indonesian salted-boiled fish (pindang) is a popular traditional food in Indonesia, which is made from Scombroid fish such as tuna and mackerel. As with other traditionally prepared fish products, pindang has important economic and social values, especially for those living in the coastal areas of Indonesia. However, pindang is a major cause of histamine fish poisoning (HFP) for consumers. Klebsiella aerogenes T124, a relatively high histamine-producing isolate from pindang, was used to describe lag time (λ), growth rate (μmax), maximum population density (Nmax), and histamine production in histidine broth and artificially contaminated Grey mackerel. Broth was adjusted to 1.5, 6, 10 and 20% w/v NaCl; mackerel was treated with 6% w/w NaCl, a level common to Indonesian industry practice, or not treated with additional NaCl. Samples were incubated at 10, 15, 20 and 30 °C. In broth, μmax and Nmax were significantly affected by temperature and NaCl, respectively, with λ influenced by both parameters. In control fish, μmax was significantly affected by temperature and NaCl, except at 10 and 15 °C; for 6% NaCl treatment, growth was only observed at 20 and 30 °C. Under similar incubation conditions for broth and fish, histamine formation was markedly affected by NaCl concentration. In broth, −5.1 to −6.6 log μg of histamine was produced per CFU, versus −4.6 to −6.6 log μg per CFU in fish. This study demonstrated that mackerel treated with 6% NaCl and stored at 10–15 °C prevents growth of K. aerogenes strain TI24 and formation of toxic levels of histamine.


Publication title

International Journal of Food Microbiology



Article number









Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture (TIA)


Elsevier Science Bv

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Po Box 211, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1000 Ae

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Socio-economic Objectives

Unprocessed or minimally processed fish