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Non-fatal opioid overdose, naloxone access, and naloxone training among people who recently used opioids or received opioid agonist treatment in Australia: The ETHOS Engage study

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 10:51 authored by Conway, A, Valerio, H, Amy PeacockAmy Peacock, Degenhardt, L, Hayllar, J, Harrod, ME, Henderson, C, Read, P, Gilliver, R, Christmass, M, Dunlop, A, Montebello, M, Whitton, G, Reid, D, Lam, T, Alavi, M, Silk, D, Marshall, AD, Treloar, C, Dore, GJ, Grebely, J
Background: Overdose is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people who use opioids. Naloxone can reverse opioid overdoses and can be distributed and administered with minimal training. People with experience of overdose are a key population to target for overdose prevention strategies. This study aims to understand if factors associated with recent non-fatal opioid overdose are the same as factors associated with naloxone access and naloxone training in people who recently used opioids or received opioid agonist treatment (OAT). Methods: ETHOS Engage is an observational study of people who inject drugs in Australia. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for non-fatal opioid overdose, naloxone access and naloxone training. Results: Between May 2018-September 2019, 1280 participants who recently used opioids or received OAT were enrolled (62% aged >40 years; 35% female, 80% receiving OAT, 62% injected drugs in the preceding month). Recent opioid overdose (preceding 12 months) was reported by 7% of participants, lifetime naloxone access by 17%, and lifetime naloxone training by 14%. Compared to people receiving OAT with no additional opioid use, recent opioid, benzodiazepine (preceding six months), and hazardous alcohol use was associated with recent opioid overdose (aOR 3.91; 95%CI: 1.68-9.10) and lifetime naloxone access (aOR 2.12; 95%CI 1.29-3.48). Among 91 people who reported recent overdose, 65% had never received take-home naloxone or naloxone training. Conclusions: Among people recently using opioids or receiving OAT, benzodiazepine and hazardous alcohol use is associated with non-fatal opioid overdose. Not all factors associated with non-fatal overdose correspond to factors associated with naloxone access. Naloxone access and training is low across all groups. Additional interventions are needed to scale up naloxone provision.


Publication title

International Journal of Drug Policy








School of Psychological Sciences



Place of publication


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Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V

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Socio-economic Objectives

Substance abuse

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