University Of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

Numerical investigation of scale effect in self-propelled container ship squat

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-20, 13:40 authored by Zhen KokZhen Kok, Jonathan DuffyJonathan Duffy, Shuhong ChaiShuhong Chai, Jin, Y, Javanmardi, M
A URANS CFD-based study has been undertaken to investigate scale effect in container ship squat. Initially, CFD studies were carried out for the model scale benchmarking squat cases of a self-propelled DTC container ship. Propulsion of the vessel was modelled by the body-force actuator disc method. Full scale investigations were then undertaken. Validation of the full scale set-up was demonstrated by computing the full scale bare hull resistance in deep, laterally unrestricted water and comparing against the extrapolated resistance of model scale benchmark resistance data. Upon validating the setup, it was used to predict full scale ship squat in confined waters. The credibility of the full scale confined water model was checked by comparing vessel resistance in confined water against the Landweber (1933) empirical prediction. To quantify scale effect in ship squat predicitons, the benchmarking squat cases were computed by adopting the validated full scale CFD model with body-force propulsion. Comparison between the full scale CFD, model scale CFD and model scale benchmark EFD squat results demonstrates that scale effect is negligible. In addition, model scale predicted ship squat results were compared with physical full scale squat measurements of similar hulls. The two series of results are in good agreement which also demonstrate that the scale effect is insignificant.


Publication title

Applied Ocean Research



Article number









Australian Maritime College


Elsevier Sci Ltd

Place of publication

The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, England, Oxon, Ox5 1Gb

Rights statement

© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Water safety; Water transport not elsewhere classified