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Palladium(II) complexes containing mono-, bi- and tridentate carbene ligands. Synthesis, characterisation and application as catalysts in C-C coupling reactions

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-16, 13:05 authored by Magill, AM, McGuinness, DS, Cavell, KJ, Britovsek, GJP, Gibson, VC, White, AJP, Williams, DJ, White, AH, Skelton, BW
Palladium complexes of functionalised heterocyclic carbene complexes have been synthesised. Treatment of imidazolium salts with Ag 2 O yields Ag I (carbene) 2 complexes, which act as carbene transfer agents when reacted with palladium salts. In this manner, [Pd(Me)(1-(2-ethylpyridyl)-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene)Cl] 2 (4a) and Pd(Me)(1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene) 2 Cl (4c) have been prepared from PdMeCl(cod) (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene) and the appropriate silver complex. Similarly, the reaction of a Ag(carbene) 2 complex with PdCl 2 (MeCN) 2 gives Pd(1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene) 2 Cl 2 (4b). The tridentate carbene complex [Pd(Me)(1,3-di(2-picolyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene)]BF 4 (6a) is synthesised via the in situ reaction of the imidazolium salt with Ag 2 O, followed by PdMeCl(cod) and AgBF 4 , whilst [PdCl{1,3-bis(diisopropyl-2-ethylamino)imidazolin-2-ylidene}]BF 4 (6c) is synthesised in an identical manner from PdCl 2 (MeCN) 2 . The chelated complexes [1,1′-dimethyl-3,3′-(1,2-xylylene)diimidazolin-2,2′-diylidene] Pd(II) dibromide (5a), [1,1′-dimethyl-3,3′-(1,3-xylylene)diimidazolin-2,2′-diylidene] Pd(II) dibromide (5b) and Pd(imidazoliophane)Br 2 (5c) have been synthesised via the reaction of the appropriate imidazolium salt with Pd(OAc) 2 . X-ray crystal structures of the imidazolium salt, 1,3-di(2-picolyl)imidazolium chloride (1f) and the complex [Pd(Me)(tetramethylimidazolin-2-ylidene) 2 Cl] (2) are reported. Complex 2 shows square planar coordination with the two carbene ligands trans to each other. The carbene ligands are inclined at 65.3° to the coordination plane. Several complexes proved to be highly stable and efficient catalysts for intermolecular Heck and Suzuki coupling reactions, giving turnover numbers of up to 980 000 (Heck) and 177 500 (Suzuki). © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.


Publication title

Journal of Organometallic Chemistry








School of Natural Sciences


Elsevier Science SA

Place of publication

Lausanne, Switzerland

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Expanding knowledge in the chemical sciences

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