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Prognostic value of LA volumes assessed by transthoracic 3D echocardiography: Comparison with 2D echocardiography
Objectives: The hypothesis of this study was that minimal left atrial volume index (LAVImin) by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is the best predictor of future cardiovascular events.
Background: Although maximal left atrial volume index (LAVImax) by 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is a robust index for predicting prognosis, the prognostic value of LAVImin and the superiority of measurements by 3DE over 2DE have not been determined in a large group of patients.
Methods: In protocol 1, we assessed age and sex dependency of LAVIs using 2DE and 3DE in 124 normal subjects and determined their cutoff values (mean + 2 SD). In protocol 2, 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) LAVImax/LAVImin were measured in 556 patients with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. After excluding patients with atrial fibrillation, mitral valve disease, and age <18 years, 439 subjects were followed to record major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Patients were divided into 2 groups by the cutoff criteria of LAVI in each method.
Results: In protocol 1, there was no significant age and sex dependency for each 2D and 3D LAVI. In protocol 2, during a mean of 2.5 years of follow-up, MACE developed in 88 patients, including 32 cardiac deaths. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed that all 4 LAVI cutoff criteria had significant predictive power of MACE. After variables were adjusted for clinical variables and left ventricular ejection fraction, all 4 methods were still independently and significantly associated with MACE, but 3D-derived LAVImin had the highest risk ratio. 3D LAVImin also had an incremental prognostic value over 3D LAVImax.
Conclusions: LAVIs by both 2DE and 3DE are powerful predictors of future cardiac events. 3D LAVImin tended to have a stronger and additive prognostic value than 3D LAVImax.
Publication titleJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Department/SchoolMenzies Institute for Medical Research
Place of publicationUnited States
Rights statementCopyright 2013 THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY FOUNDATION