University Of Tasmania

File(s) under permanent embargo

Prospective associations of osteosarcopenia and osteodynapenia with incident fracture and mortality over 10 years in community-dwelling older adults

Aim: To determine whether older adults with low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia), in the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia, have an increased risk of fracture and mortality over 10 years, compared to those with low muscle or low bone mass alone or with neither condition.

Methods: 1032 participants (52% women; mean age 62.9 ± 7.4 years) were prospectively followed for 10 years. Mortality was ascertained from the death registry and fractures were self-reported. Baseline appendicular lean mass (ALM) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and normalised to body mass index (BMI). Hand grip strength (HGS) was assessed by dynamometer. Osteosarcopenia and osteodynapenia were defined as having T-scores of the total hip and/or lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) < -1 combined with being in the lowest 20% of the sex-specific distribution for ALM/BMI or HGS respectively.

Results: Incident fracture risk was significantly higher in participants who were osteodynapenic (RR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.26-3.39), dynapenic alone (RR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.05-2.87), and osteopenic alone (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.15-2.31), compared to those without dynapenia or osteopenia. Mortality risk was significantly higher only in participants with osteosarcopenia (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21) compared to those without sarcopenia or osteopenia. However, osteosarcopenia and osteodynapenia did not lead to a significantly greater fracture or mortality risk compared to having these conditions on their own.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the combined effect of osteopenia and sarcopenia or dynapenia on fracture and mortality risk, respectively, may not be greater than that of each individual condition.


Publication title

Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics








Menzies Institute for Medical Research


Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd

Place of publication

Customer Relations Manager, Bay 15, Shannon Industrial Estate Co, Clare, Ireland

Rights statement

Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Clinical health not elsewhere classified

Usage metrics

    University Of Tasmania