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Pyridine levels in ceftazidime-peritoneal dialysis admixtures stored at body temperature

Background:For the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP), ceftazidime is routinely admixed with peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions before its intraperitoneal administration. One of the major degradation products of ceftazidime is pyridine, a potentially toxic compound. Depending on the type of PD solution, ceftazidime is exposed to an environment with acidic or basic pH, and depending on the type of dosing and individual unit practices related to preparation and storage, ceftazidime can be at body temperature for 4–10 h, resulting in potentially varying rates of degradation to pyridine by-product. No study has investigated whether the amount of generated pyridine exceeds the maximum daily exposure limit of 2 mg when ceftazidime-PD admixtures are kept at body temperature. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the levels of pyridine generated in PD-ceftazidime admixtures kept at 37C for various time points.

Methods: was admixed with 2 L Dianeal (1.5%, 2.5% and 4.25% dextrose) and 2 L Physioneal (1.36%, 2.27% and 3.86% glucose) PD solutions to obtain a concentration of 125 mg/L (continuous dosing model) or 500 mg/L (intermittent dosing model). A total of 36 PD admixtures (3 bags for each type of PD solution and 3 bags for each type of dosing) were prepared and stored at 37C for 10 h. An aliquot was withdrawn at time 0 (baseline) and after 2, 6, 8 and 10 h of storage. The withdrawn samples were then analysed to determine the concentrations of ceftazidime and pyridine using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: With the intermittent dosing model (500 mg/L), ceftazidime was found to be stable for only 2 and 6 h when admixed with 3.86% and 2.27% glucose Physioneal PD solutions, respectively. While ceftazidime (500 mg/L) retained more than 90% of its initial concentration in the three types of Dianeal and 1.36% dextrose Physioneal solutions for 10 and 8 h, respectively, the generated amount of pyridine ranged between approximately 290% and 371% more than the daily recommended limit. With the continuous dosing model (125 mg/L), ceftazidime was found to be stable for 6 h in all three types of Physioneal PD solutions, but the total amount of generated pyridine with four daily exchanges (6 h each) was estimated to be 170–360% over the daily recommended limit. Ceftazidime (125 mg/L) was chemically stable when admixed with three types of Dianeal PD solutions and stored at 37C for 10 h, and the levels of pyridine were estimated to be less than the maximum recommended daily limit.

Conclusions: Until the outcomes of this in vitro study are confirmed by appropriate in vivo studies, continuous dosing of ceftzadime–Dianeal admixtures for the treatment of PDAP may be preferred over continuous dosing of ceftazidime–Physioneal admixtures, and intermittent dosing of ceftazidime–Physioneal and ceftazidime–Dianea admixtures, as ceftazidime remains stable and the generated levels of pyridine are below the maximum recommended daily exposure.


Royal Hobart Hospital Research Foundation


Publication title

Peritoneal Dialysis International








School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology


Multimed Inc

Place of publication

66 Martin St, Toronto, Canada, On, L9T 2R2

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Copyright 2020 The Authors

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Provision of health and support services not elsewhere classified

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