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Refocusing the 3P model to incorporate a learning and teaching environment and graduate attributes
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-20, 12:09 authored by David KemberDavid Kember, Webster, BJ, Chan, WSC
The 3P (presage, process, product) model was introduced as a conceptualisation to underpin research into students’ approaches to learning (SAL). This paper proposes the refocusing of the 3P model by formulating the initial presage phase as a teaching and learning environment, thus making the 3P model more consistent with SAL research which examines the influence of perceptions of aspects of teaching, learning and assessment on approaches to learning. The method was to use structural equation modelling to test a hypothesised version of the refocused 3P model. Data from a questionnaire administered to students at a university in Hong Kong showed a good fit to the data. The model showed that a teaching and learning environment influenced approaches to learning then impacted on the attainment of graduate attributes. The model showed that a well-designed teaching and learning environment, including teacher-student and student-student interaction, plus a lively co-curriculum had a part to play in promoting deep approaches to learning. Deep approaches then had a positive effect on attribute development in students.
Publication titleEducational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology
Department/SchoolFaculty of Education
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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