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Strigolactone and Karrikin Signaling Pathways Elicit Ubiquitination and Proteolysis of SMXL2 to Regulate Hypocotyl Elongation in Arabidopsis

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 09:41 authored by Wang, L, Xu, Q, Yu, H, Ma, H, Li, X, Yang, J, Chu, J, Xie, Q, Wang, Y, Steven SmithSteven Smith, Li, J, Xiong, G, Wang, B
Strigolactones (SLs) and karrikins (KARs) are related butenolide signaling molecules that control plant development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), they are recognized separately by two closely related receptors but use the same F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) for signal transduction, targeting different members of the SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) family of transcriptional repressors for degradation. Both signals inhibit hypocotyl elongation in seedlings, raising the question of whether signaling is convergent or parallel. Here, we show that synthetic SL analog GR244DO enhanced the interaction between the SL receptor DWARF14 (D14) and SMXL2, while the KAR surrogate GR24ent-5DS induced association of the KAR receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) with SMAX1 and SMXL2. Both signals trigger polyubiquitination and degradation of SMXL2, with GR244DO dependent on D14 and GR24ent-5DS dependent mainly on KAI2. SMXL2 is critical for hypocotyl responses to GR244DO and functions redundantly with SMAX1 in hypocotyl response to GR24ent-5DS. Furthermore, GR244DO induced response of D14-LIKE2 and KAR-UP F-BOX1 through SMXL2, whereas GR24ent-5DS induced expression of these genes via both SMAX1 and SMXL2. These findings demonstrate that both SLs and KARs could trigger polyubiquitination and degradation of SMXL2, thus uncovering an unexpected but important convergent pathway in SL- and KAR-regulated gene expression and hypocotyl elongation


Publication title

The Plant Cell










School of Natural Sciences


Oxford University Press

Place of publication

United States

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences

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