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Sustaining transmission in different host species: the emblematic case of Sarcoptes scabiei
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-21, 07:04 authored by Browne, E, Michael DriessenMichael Driessen, Cross, PC, Escobar, LE, Foley, J, Lopez-Olvera, JR, Niedringhaus, KD, Rossi, L, Scott CarverScott Carver
Some pathogens sustain transmission in multiple different host species, but how this epidemiologically important feat is achieved remains enigmatic. Sarcoptes scabiei is among the most host generalist and successful of mammalian parasites. We synthesize pathogen and host traits that mediate sustained transmission and present cases illustrating three transmission mechanisms (direct, indirect, and combined). The pathogen traits that explain the success of S. scabiei include immune response modulation, on-host movement capacity, off-host seeking behaviors, and environmental persistence. Sociality and host density appear to be key for hosts in which direct transmission dominates, whereas in solitary hosts, the use of shared environments is important for indirect transmission. In social den-using species, combined direct and indirect transmission appears likely. Empirical research rarely considers the mechanisms enabling S. scabiei to become endemic in host species—more often focusing on outbreaks. Our review may illuminate parasites’ adaptation strategies to sustain transmission through varied mechanisms across host species.
Australian Research Council
Department of Natural Resources and Environment Tasmania
MSD Animal Health
Department/SchoolSchool of Natural Sciences
PublisherOxford University Press
Place of publication1444 Eye St, Nw, Ste 200, Washington, USA, Dc, 20005
Rights statementCopyright 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.