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Targeting the P2Y13 receptor suppresses IL-33 and HMGB1 release and ameliorates experimental asthma
Rationale:The alarmins IL-33 and HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) contribute to type 2 inflammation and asthma pathogenesis.
Objectives: To determine whether P2Y13-R (P2Y13 receptor), a purinergic GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) and risk allele for asthma, regulates the release of IL-33 and HMGB1.
Methods: Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Primary human airway epithelial cells (AECs), primary mouse AECs, or C57Bl/6 mice were inoculated with various aeroallergens or respiratory viruses, and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation and release of alarmins was measured by using immunohistochemistry and an ELISA. The role of P2Y13-R in AEC function and in the onset, progression, and exacerbation of experimental asthma was assessed by using pharmacological antagonists and mice with P2Y13-R gene deletion.
Measurements and Main Results: Aeroallergen exposure induced the extracellular release of ADP and ATP, nucleotides that activate P2Y13-R. ATP, ADP, and aeroallergen (house dust mite, cockroach, or Alternaria antigen) or virus exposure induced the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation and subsequent release of IL-33 and HMGB1, and this response was ablated by genetic deletion or pharmacological antagonism of P2Y13. In mice, prophylactic or therapeutic P2Y13-R blockade attenuated asthma onset and, critically, ablated the severity of a rhinovirus-associated exacerbation in a high-fidelity experimental model of chronic asthma. Moreover, P2Y13-R antagonism derepressed antiviral immunity, increasing IFN-λ production and decreasing viral copies in the lung.
Conclusions: We identify P2Y13-R as a novel gatekeeper of the nuclear alarmins IL-33 and HMGB1 and demonstrate that the targeting of this GPCR via genetic deletion or treatment with a small-molecule antagonist protects against the onset and exacerbations of experimental asthma.
Clifford Craig Foundation
Publication titleAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Department/SchoolSchool of Health Sciences
PublisherAmer Thoracic Soc
Place of publication1740 Broadway, New York, USA, Ny, 10019-4374
Rights statementCopyright © 2022 by the American Thoracic Society