File(s) not publicly available
Temperature tolerances of toxic dinoflagellate cysts: application to the treatment of ships' ballast water
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-16, 10:47 authored by Gustaaf HallegraeffGustaaf Hallegraeff, Valentine, JP, Marshall, JA, Christopher BolchChristopher Bolch
Using toxic dinoflagellates and their resistant resting cysts as model organisms, we demonstrate the potential of heat treatment as a method to minimise the transport of harmful aquatic organisms via ships' ballast water. Vegetative dinoflagellate cultures of Gymnodinium catenatum could be readily killed using temperatures as low as 35 Â°C and treatment times in the range 30 minutes to 5 h. The resistant resting cysts (hypnozygotes) of G. catenatum were killed after 2 h at 35 Â°C and the cysts of Alexandrium catenella were killed after 4.5 h at 38 Â°C. A careful assessment of various waste heat sources on the BHP bulk carrier 'Iron Whyalla' has confirmed the practicability of this approach, and a successful pilot heat treatment plant was trialled on-board ship in April 1997.
Publication titleAquatic Ecology
Department/SchoolSchool of Natural Sciences
PublisherKluwer Academic Publishers
Place of publicationBelgium