Temporal trends in the risk of developing multiple primary cancers: a systematic review
METHODS: A systematic search to identify population-based studies of MPCs was performed in Medline/PubMed and Embase databases from inception to August 2016. Included studies were those reporting risk of MPCs for all sites combined following a first cancer at any site or a specific site, using standard incidence ratios (SIRs) or equivalent, and with analysis stratified by calendar years.RESULTS: We identified 28 articles eligible for inclusion, comprising 26 population-based studies and two monographs. MPC incidence was reported in nearly 6.5 million cancer survivors. For all first cancer sites combined, a higher rate of MPCs was reported in more recent than earlier calendar periods in four of the six relevant studies. The SIRs ranged from 1.14 for a first cancer diagnosis in the early 1980s to 1.21-1.46 in the late 1990s in the USA and Australia. Two studies from Italy and France showed no significant difference in SIRs across time periods 1978-2010 and 1989-2004. The remaining 22 studies reported various temporal trends in the risk of developing MPCs after a first cancer at a specific site, but most showed little change.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the risk of developing MPCs appears to have increased since the 1980s when considering studies of all primary cancer sites combined from the USA and Australia but not from Europe. With the introduction of more routine nuclear medical imaging over the last 15 years, more studies are needed to confirm recent trends of MPC risk in adult cancer survivors.
Publication titleBMC Cancer
Department/SchoolMenzies Institute for Medical Research
PublisherBiomed Central Ltd
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
Rights statementCopyright 2016 The Authors Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/