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Ten-year prediction model for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction and early detection of COPD: Development and validation in two middle-aged population-based cohorts

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posted on 2023-05-21, 11:53 authored by Perret, JL, Vicendese, D, Simons, K, Jarvis, DL, Lowe, AJ, Lodge, CJ, Bui, DS, Tan, D, Burgess, JA, Erbas, B, Bickerstaffe, A, Hancock, K, Thompson, BR, Hamilton, GS, Adams, R, Benke, GP, Thomas, PS, Frith, P, Mcdonald, CF, Blakely, T, Abramson, MJ, Eugene WaltersEugene Walters, Minelli, C, Dharmage, SC

Background: Classifying individuals at high chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-risk creates opportunities for early COPD detection and active intervention.

Objective: To develop and validate a statistical model to predict 10-year probabilities of COPD defined by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO; forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity<5th percentile).

Setting: General Caucasian populations from Australia and Europe, 10 and 27 centres, respectively.

Participants: For the development cohort, questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, smoking, asthma, occupation and participant sex were from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) participants at age 41-45 years (n=5729) who did not have self-reported COPD/emphysema at baseline but had post-BD spirometry and smoking status at age 51-55 years (n=2407). The validation cohort comprised participants from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II and III (n=5970), restricted to those of age 40-49 and 50-59 with complete questionnaire and spirometry/smoking data, respectively (n=1407).

Statistical method: Risk-prediction models were developed using randomForest then externally validated.

Results: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC) of the final model was 80.8% (95% CI 80.0% to 81.6%), sensitivity 80.3% (77.7% to 82.9%), specificity 69.1% (68.7% to 69.5%), positive predictive value (PPV) 11.1% (10.3% to 11.9%) and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.7% (98.5% to 98.9%). The external validation was fair (AUCROC 75.6%), with the PPV increasing to 17.9% and NPV still 97.5% for adults aged 40-49 years with ≥1 respiratory symptom. To illustrate the model output using hypothetical case scenarios, a 43-year-old female unskilled worker who smoked 20 cigarettes/day for 30 years had a 27% predicted probability for post-BD-AO at age 53 if she continued to smoke. The predicted risk was 42% if she had coexistent active asthma, but only 4.5% if she had quit after age 43.

Conclusion: This novel and validated risk-prediction model could identify adults aged in their 40s at high 10-year COPD-risk in the general population with potential to facilitate active monitoring/intervention in predicted 'COPD cases' at a much earlier age.


Publication title

BMJ Open Respiratory Research



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Tasmanian School of Medicine


BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society

Place of publication

United Kingdom

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© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021 This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial.

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Socio-economic Objectives

Prevention of human diseases and conditions

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