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Tests of Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance in the United States and Australia Using the Adult Version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-17, 07:05 authored by Gomez, R, Rohner, RP
This study uses confirmatory factor analysis procedures to examine the factor structure of the mother and father versions of the Parental Acceptance- Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and their measurement invariance across ratings provided by 314 Australian adults and 509 adults in the United States. The adult version of the PARQ is a 60-item self-report instrument designed to measure adults’ perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood. The questionnaire contains four scales measuring warmth/ affection, hostility/aggression, indifference/neglect, and undifferentiated rejection. Results of analyses support the proposed four-factor model. All but six items in the father version and all items in the mother version show invariance across the two national groups. Overall, the results indicate support for the factorial model of the PARQ, as well as measurement equivalence across the national groups tested.


Publication title

Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science








School of Psychological Sciences


Sage Publications Inc

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2455 Teller Rd, Thousand Oaks, USA, Ca, 91320

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Coyright © 2011 SAGE Publications

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Socio-economic Objectives

Mental health

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