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The Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-19, 22:47 authored by Biggs, JB, David KemberDavid Kember, Leung, DYP

Aim: To produce a revised two factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ2F) suitable for use by teachers in evaluating the learning approaches of their students. The revised instrument assesses deep and surface approaches only, using fewer items.

Method: A set of 43 items were drawn up for the initial tests. These were derived from; the original version of the SPQ, modified items from the SPQ, and new items. A process of testing and refinement eventuated in deep and surface motive and strategy scales each with 5 items, 10 items per approach score. The final version was tested using reliability procedures and confirmatory factor analysis.

Sample: The sample for the testing and refinement process consisted of 229 students from the health sciences faculty of a university in Hong Kong. A fresh sample of 495 undergraduate students from a variety of departments of the same university was used for the test of the final version.

Results: The final version of the questionnaire had acceptable Cronbach alpha values for scale reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the intended two factor structure. Both deep and surface approach scales had well identified motive and strategy subscales.

Conclusion: The revision process has resulted in a simple questionnaire which teachers can use to evaluate their own teaching and the learning approaches of their students.


Publication title

British Journal of Educational Psychology








Faculty of Education


British Psychological Soc

Place of publication

St Andrews House, 48 Princess Rd East, Leicester, England, Leics, Le1 7Dr

Rights statement

© 2001 The British Psychological Society

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  • Restricted

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