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The Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire: Testing for Model Applicability, Measurement and Structural Equivalencies, and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-17, 02:17 authored by Gomez, R, Fisher, JW
Fisher (1998) proposed a spiritual well-being model, comprising primary factors for the domains of personal, communal, environmental and transcendental well-being, that cohere to form a single higher order or global spiritual well-being dimension. In line with this model, Gomez and Fisher (2003) published the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ), with scales for measuring personal, communal, environmental and transcendental spiritual well-being. This study used multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine gender equivalencies of the measurement and structural models of the SWBQ, and the latent mean in the four SWBQ factors. A total of 3101 females and 1361 males, with age ranging from 15 to 32 years, completed the SWBQ. The statistical fit results supported the invariance of the measurement model, and some aspects of the structural model. The practical fit indices results provided support for the invariance of both the measurement and structural models. The results also showed little gender differences. Together, these findings support gender equivalencies for the SWBQ.


Publication title

Personality and Individual Differences: An International Journal of Research Into The Structure and Development of Personality and The Causation of Individual Differences










School of Psychological Sciences


Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd

Place of publication

The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, England, Ox5 1Gb

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Behaviour and health

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