University Of Tasmania
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The association between living alone and frailty in a rural Japanese population: the Nagasaki Islands study

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-18, 16:18 authored by Yamanashi, H, Shimizu, Y, Mark NelsonMark Nelson, Koyamatsu, J, Nagayoshi, M, Kadota, K, Tamai, M, Ariyoshi, K, Maeda, T

Introduction: Demographic changes in Japan have resulted in an increased number of elderly living alone.

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify if there is an association between frailty and living alone.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1602 Japanese men and women living in isolated islands. Information obtained included height, body weight, handgrip strength, and family structure; antihypertensive, hypoglycaemic, and lipid-lowering medication use; history of stroke or ischaemic heart disease, smoking history, alcohol intake, joint pain or swelling. Relevant laboratory test results were obtained from recent health check-ups. The Frailty Index for Japanese elderly, a 15-item self-report questionnaire was completed by participants and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) was administered.

Results: After individuals aged below 60 years old or those with missing data were excluded, data from 1224 participants were analysed. Living alone (single household family structure) was significantly associated with frailty in men (odds ratio [OR] 3.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.94-7.65), but not in women (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.72-1.63). This association in men remained statistically significant after adjustment for known risk factors for frailty.

Discussion: In the elderly population in rural Nagasaki, men living alone have a high risk of frailty. Screening and intervention to prevent frailty in this population is urgently needed.


Publication title

Journal of Primary Health Care










Tasmanian School of Medicine


Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners

Place of publication

New Zealand

Rights statement

Copyright 2015 CSIRO. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Repository Status

  • Open

Socio-economic Objectives

Health related to ageing