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The criminogenic profile of violent female offenders incarcerated in Western Australian prisons as per the Level of Service/Risk, Need, Responsivity (LS/RNR) and Violence Risk Scale (VRS)

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 05:47 authored by Gower, M, Caroline SpiranovicCaroline Spiranovic, Morgan, F, Saunders, J
Female offender risk assessment is predominantly based on criminogenic factors that predict reoffending in males. Research indicates there are criminogenic factors specific to female offenders, and certain factors linked to offending for both sexes have greater impact on female offenders. This paper extends current research using a Western Australian sample to determine whether findings are replicated with an Australian cohort. Gender differences in the criminogenic profile of 1704 violent offenders (9% female), assessed using the Level of Service/Risk, Need, Responsivity (LS/RNR) and Violence Risk Scale (VRS), were analysed using a matched sample study design. There were significant gender differences on all components of the LS/RNR, except criminal history. In the subsequent matched study, these differences varied, and females scored significantly lower on all VRS-SV items, except age. Gender differences in violence risk scores were clear, providing support for gender-responsive assessment and treatment of violent female offenders, with further validation needed.


Publication title

Psychiatry Psychology and Law






Faculty of Law



Place of publication

United Kingdom

Rights statement

© 2022 The Australian and New Zealand Association of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Crime prevention; Criminal justice

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