The surface energy balance at Panda 1 Station, Princess Elizabeth Land: a typical katabatic wind region in East Antarctica
Using automatic weather station and reanalysis data (ERA5) from 2011 at Panda‐1 Station, situated in the katabatic region of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, the surface energy balance was calculated using a surface temperature iteration method, and the characteristics of each energy component were analyzed. Downward shortwave and longwave radiation were the two primary energy sources during summer days with seasonal means of 346 and 142 W m−2. The turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat flux represent smaller heat sources. In the annual mean, reflected shortwave radiation exceeds the upward longwave radiation with a seasonal average values of −287 W m−2. During winter, the shortwave radiation is small, and the main energy input and output terms of the surface energy balance are downward and upward longwave radiation, with seasonal average values of 149 and −159 W m−2, respectively. The combination of high wind speed and a large near‐surface humidity gradient during summer resulted in significant frost depositional events. The total surface frost deposition for the whole year was 24 kg m−2, which accounted for 61% of the total accumulation (averaged over 10 years). When a high‐pressure ridge blocks cyclones and deflects fronts of low‐pressure systems to inland East Antarctica during winter, this has a significant impact on the surface energy balance at Panda 1 automatic weather station, with daily sensible and latent heat fluxes increasing by as much as 25 and 12 W m−2, respectively. These results still contain uncertainties as we only address a single year, when interannual variability may be considerable, and we do not consider drifting snow sublimation.
Publication titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Department/SchoolInstitute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
PublisherWiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Place of publicationUnited States
Rights statementCopyright 2019 American Geophysical Union