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Time spent outdoors through childhood and adolescence - assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration - and risk of myopia at 20 years

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-21, 10:34 authored by Lingham, G, Mackey, DA, Zhu, K, Lucas, RM, Black, LJ, Wendy OddyWendy Oddy, Holt, P, Walsh, JP, Sanfilippo, PG, Chan She Ping-Delfos, W, Yazar, S
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between time spent outdoors, at particular ages in childhood and adolescence, and myopia status in young adulthood using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Methods: Participants of the Raine Study Generation 2 cohort had 25(OH)D concentrations measured at the 6-, 14-, 17- and 20-year follow-ups. Participants underwent cycloplegic autorefraction at age 20 years, and myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent -0.50 dioptres or more myopic. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between risk of myopia at age 20 years and age-specific 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse trajectory of 25(OH)D concentrations from 6 to 20 years. Results: After adjusting for sex, race, parental myopia, body mass index and studying status, myopia at 20 years was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration at 20 years (per 10 nmol/L decrease, odds ratio (aOR)=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18) and a low vitamin D status [25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] at 17 years (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.76) and 20 years (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.56), compared to those without low vitamin D status. There were no associations between 25(OH)D at younger ages and myopia. Individuals who were myopic at 20 years had a 25(OH)D concentration trajectory that declined, relative to non-myopic peers, with increasing age. Differences in 25(OH)D trajectory between individuals with and without myopia were greater among non-Caucasians compared to Caucasians. Conclusions: Myopia in young adulthood was most strongly associated with recent 25(OH)D concentrations, a marker of time spent outdoors.


Publication title

Acta Ophthalmologica










Menzies Institute for Medical Research



Place of publication

United Kingdom

Rights statement

© 2021 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Determinants of health

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