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Transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity and ultraviolet detection for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel samples

journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-18, 03:47 authored by Abdul Keyon, AS, Rosanne Guijt, Christopher BolchChristopher Bolch, Michael BreadmoreMichael Breadmore
The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early,on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C4D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C4D and 141 to 461 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an8–97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n = 3) of tITP-CZE-C4D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82–11% and 0.76–10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site.


Publication title

Journal of Chromatography A








School of Natural Sciences


Elsevier Science Bv

Place of publication

Po Box 211, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1000 Ae

Rights statement

Copyright 2014 Elsevier

Repository Status

  • Restricted

Socio-economic Objectives

Fisheries - aquaculture not elsewhere classified

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