Baalisampang_whole_thesis.pdf (2.98 MB)
Evolving accident scenario modelling in complex processing facilities
thesisposted on 2023-05-28, 09:55 authored by Baalisampang, T
Offshore oil and gas production and processing facilities are prone to incidents such as leakage which may escalate thus causing major accidents. These accidents pose a serious threat to personnel and assets. Previously, accident modelling has relied on studying a single event and its impact. It has been witnessed from past events that accidents are caused by combinations of events and therefore, accident modelling must consider multiple sequences of events and interdependent factors. The Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) is a complex processing facility where a leakage of liquified natural gas (LNG) may escalate to a range of events such as fire to vapor cloud explosion. The escalation of events is dependent on the multiple intertwined factors evolving with time and space. This study is focussed on developing novel methodologies and models to study the transitional events and their causation during a major event in complex LNG processing facilities. This thesis outlined an extensive literature review and analysis of offshore and marine safety from the perspective of fire and/or explosion accidents. It analysed various causes of fire and/or explosion accidents and proposed a series of countermeasures with respect to different causes. The impact of the cryogenic temperature of LNG on steel structure during its accidental leakage has not been extensively studied. This study modelled an LNG pool formation and the impact of cryogenic temperature on a structural material during an accidental release of LNG. The study confirmed that an instantaneous LNG pool formation does cause immediate failure, however, this may significantly minimise design life of the structure and due attention is needed throughout its service life particularly in the spilled area. Literature review showed that minor leaks occur frequently, and they are often overlooked assuming that they are inconsequential. However, in the case of LNG, it can be too simple to ignore small leak due to the potentiality of causing suitable scenario for fire and explosion event upon rapid vaporisation after the leakage. This study proposed a novel technique for modelling fugitive leakage of LNG in a processing facility. The developed methodology is applied considering three different degrees of congestion and revealed that higher congestion levels present higher flammable hazards than the lower levels of congestion within the acceptable congestion level. As fire is the main cause of accident in oil and gas processing facilities, this study proposed a novel methodology for modelling fire impact assessment in a typical FLNG processing facility using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Three most credible fire accident scenarios were chosen from among various fire scenarios considered in the FLNG facility. It is found that the scenario in the Mixed Refrigerant Module in the liquefaction process presents the highest risk of fire to both on-board personnel and assets. In a complex processing facility, there is a high likelihood of occurrence of transitional scenarios such as hydrocarbon release, fire, explosion and dispersion of combustion products. Finally, this study modelled potential transitional events and their integrated impact during an accidental release of LNG. This study revealed that in a complex processing facility, transition of events is highly possible, and the impact of such events can be more severe than that of the individual event. This study serves as a comprehensive source of knowledge and technique on which to model various accident scenarios. The study of these scenarios assists in better understanding of accident causation and improves design to prevent causation of such events. The study also provides a practical approach to design safety measure to control and mitigate hazards when prevention is challenging. This thesis will serve as a guiding book to better design of processing facilities and safety measures for a complex processing facility.
Rights statementCopyright 2019 the author Chapter 2 appears to be the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Baalisampang, T., Abbassi, R., Garaniya, V., Khan, F., Dadashzadeh, M., 2018. Review and analysis of fire and explosion accidents in maritime transportation, Ocean engineering 158, 350-366 Chapter 3 appears to be the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Baalisampang, T., Khan, F., Abbassi, R., Garaniya, V., 2018. Methodology to analyse LNG spill on steel structure in congested marine offshore facility, Journal of loss prevention in the process industries, 62, 103936 Chapter 4 appears to be the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Baalisampang, T., Abbassi, R., Garaniya, V., Khan, F., Dadashzadeh, M., 2018. Accidental release of liquefied natural gas in a processing facility: effect of equipment congestion level on dispersion behaviour of the flammable vapour, Journal of loss prevention in the process industries, 61, 237-248 Chapter 5 appears to be the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Baalisampang, T., Abbassi, R., Garaniya, V., Khan, F., Dadashzadeh, M., 2017. Fire impact assessment in FLNG processing facilities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Fire safety journal 92, 42-52 Chapter 5 appears to be the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Baalisampang, T., Abbassi, R., Garaniya, V., Khan, F., Dadashzadeh, M., 2019. Modelling an integrated impact of fire, explosion and combustion products during transitional events caused by an accidental release of LNG, Process safety and environmental protection 128, 259-272