Ecological genomics of Chinese wheat improvement: implications in breeding for adaptation
Background: China has diverse wheat varieties that adapt to very different environments divided into ten agro-ecological zones. A better understanding of genomic differences and patterns of selection among agro-ecological zones could provide useful information in selection of specific adaptive traits in breeding.
Results: We genotyped 438 wheat accessions from ten zones with kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) markers specific to 47 cloned genes for grain yield, quality, adaptation and stress resistance. Phylogenetic trees and principle component analysis revealed clear differences in winter and spring growth habits. Nucleotide diversity (π) and π ratio (πCL/πMCC) suggested that genetic diversity had increased during breeding, and that Chinese landraces (CL) from Zones I-V contributed little to modern Chinese cultivars (MCC). π ratio and Fst identified 24 KASP markers with 53 strong selection signals specific to Zones I (9 signals), II (12), III (5), IV (5), V (6), and VI (6). Genes with clear genetic differentiation and strong response to selection in at least three zones were leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 (I, II, III and IV), photoperiod sensitivity gene Ppd-D1 (I, II, III, IV and V), vernalization gene Vrn-B1 (V, VII, VIII and X), quality-related gene Glu-B1 (I, II and III) and yield-related genes Sus1-7B (I, II, III, IV and IX), Sus2-2A (I, II, III., IV and VI) and GW2-6B (II, V and VI).
Conclusions: This study examined selection of multiple genes in each zone, traced the distribution of important genetic variations and provided useful information for ecological genomics and enlightening future breeding goals for different agro-ecological zones.
Publication titleBMC Plant Biology
Department/SchoolTasmanian Institute of Agriculture (TIA)
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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